Day Questions

Is it justified that I pay khums tax on my income every year, while I also have to pay taxes throughout the year to the Government?

The government collects tax for their own purposes and objectives, whereas the khums is a tax legislated in the Sharia taken on the yearly profits that remains after deducting the yearly expenses. The khums is legislated for specific goals which the Holy Legislator intended. Those goals are totally different from the uses of the government imposed taxes. It is natural then for the duty-bound individual to be obligated by the Sharia to pay khums regardless of whether he is paying other taxes or not.

I understand that temporary marriage is for pleasure. Does that mean that physical attraction and lust are permissible reasons to enter into such a contract, or are there other prerequisite motivations that one must have before two people can enter into this arrangement?

It is permissible to enter into temporary marriage for the sake of pleasure and lust via legislated means and within religious guidelines. Among the benefits of temporary marriage is that it controls sexual relation between the two sexes within specific rules and guidelines; like specifying the duration of the marriage and the dower, serving the waiting period between one marriage and another, and the child born from such a matrimony being legitimate for the couple. There is no doubt that if such marriage was common in the society, committing adultery would be minimal.

Does vomiting break your fast?

If it was not deliberate, then it does not invalidate the fast.

Is a bit of dirt and such similar substances that are usually found under the nail or on its sides considered a barrier during wudhu and ghusl?

It is not a condition in the correctness of wudhu or ghusl to remove what is underneath the nail. Dirt that appears on the nail or on its sides must be removed for the wudhu and ghusl to be correct.